in Israel is addressed under the Prevention of Violence in the Family Law of 1991.
Previously it fell under the applicable personal law. In 1996, an amendment to the Penal Law defines violence against family members as a special form of assault and stipulates a maximum sentence that is double the usual for assault. The Prevention of Violence in the Family Law provides for protective injunctions against physical abuse, as well as emotional abuse (subject to court interpretation). The Law extends to family members, spouses, as well as non-married co-habitants. The injunction may prevent an individual from approaching the home of the family member in questions, harassing the family member, or carrying a weapon.
Moreover, under the Penal and Family Laws, a court may require abusive individuals to undergo therapy, and the National Health Regulations Act (1975) requires health care providers to inform police if they suspect the patient was subject to violence.
The Ministry of Social Affairs and the Ministry of Labor and Welfare operate battered women’s shelters, a national hotline for reporting abuse (available in Hebrew, Arabic, Russian, and Amharic), seminars, training sessions, programmes, and services for victims of domestic violence. In 1990, a special unit was established within the police to deal with domestic violence, and the police operate a call center to inform victims about their cases.
Since 1998, a national investigative system focusing solely on domestic violence operates at all police stations throughout the country.
Local social services departments provide complimentary services, including treatment programs and therapy sessions for battered women and abusive men.
Women’s organizations provide counseling, crisis intervention, legal assistance, and shelters. 
One difficulty in determining the extent of domestic violence is that it often goes unreported. Women from certain Orthodox Jewish, Muslim, Bedouin, and Druze communities face significant social pressure not to report domestic abuse or rape, according to the Association of Rape Crisis Centers in Israel.
The International Women’s Zionist Organization (WIZO) reported that 200,000 women and 600,000 children were exposed to domestic violence in 2012. WIZO also claimed that 19 women were killed by domestic violence that year, although this represents a decline from the 24 killed in 2011.
, including spousal rape, is a felony under the Penal Law in Israel, punishable by 16 years in prison.
The penalty is double if the perpetrator rapes one of his relatives.
The law prohibits sexual exploitation of a minor and sets a penalty of at least seven to 20 years’ imprisonment for violators. 16 is the age of consent in Israel. Consensual sexual relations with a minor between the ages of 14 and 16 are not considered rape, but are punishable by five years’ imprisonment.
The Penal Law was amended in 1998 to establish a four-year minimum sentence in cases of rape, indecent acts, and incest.
Since 1988, courts are forbidden from asking victims of sexual crimes about their sexual history as evidence against the victim, with very limited exceptions.
In a 1993 Supreme Court ruling, the court took a strong stance against the admission of any evidence involving a woman’s sexual history as a suggestion of her consent, and it ruled that silence does not imply consent in cases when a woman may be too frightened to actively resist a sexual attempt.
In order to strengthen enforcement of laws against rape, training is provided to police and investigators regarding challenges to uncovering and reporting of rapes, especially amongst conservative population groups. Law enforcement also works with NGOs to provide support to victims during investigations. In 1990, an umbrella organization was established to coordinate the various sexual assault help centers throughout the country. In addition to providing assistance to victims, it lobbies on their behalf and raises public awareness about sexual violence.
According to Israel’s Association of Rape Crisis Centers, the majority of rape victims do not report the crime to the authorities due to social and cultural pressure.
More than two-thirds of women in Israel report living in constant fear of sexual assault. Women who are Russian-speaking recent immigrants to Israel are particularly vulnerable, with nearly 40% of them reporting to have been sexually assaulted by a stranger, according to a survey released by Israel’s Ministry of Public Security in 2012.
Amnesty International reported that persons convicted of rape within the context of a marriage or relationship received more lenient sentences in Israel than others convicted of such crimes.
is addressed under the Prevention of Sexual Harassment Law (1998), and previously under the Equal Opportunities in Employment Law (1988) and the Penal Law.
The Prevention of Sexual Harassment Law was symbolically initiated by all eight of the women serving as Members of Knesset.
The Law expanded the definition of sexual harassment to include repeated sexual references; unwanted advances, propositions by a superior to a subordinate (whether or not the subordinate shows an interest), disparaging remarks to someone based on sex or sexual orientation, and “indecent acts” as defined under the Penal Law.
Penalties for sexual harassment range from two to nine years’ imprisonment and depend on the severity of the act and whether blackmail is involved.
The law also defines sexual harassment as both a criminal offense and a cause for civil suit, and provides for a choice of enforcement channel in civil, criminal, or labour courts. Moreover, the law requires employers to meet certain obligations to prevent sexual harassment.
Implementation of Israel’s sexual harassment laws has been extensive. In the vast majority of cases, women can file lawsuits in a confidential manner, providing them with incentives to seek legal remedies.
Police investigated 515 cases of sexual harassment in 2012 and notified all victims of their right to be assisted by the Association of Rape Crisis Centers in Israel. Under the law, victims can be informed of the progress on their cases through a computerized system and information call center.
Implementation of Israeli law is impeded because some women remain fearful of reporting sexual harassment, despite laws that would protect their identity. In a survey conducted by the Economy and Trade Ministry in 2010, 165,000 women reported they experienced sexual harassment in the workplace, but only 24% of them said they lodged an official complaint with authorities. Similarly, only 20% of the 12,000 reports received by The Association of Rape Crisis Centers led to the filing of an official complaint.
is only available in Israel to save a woman’s life, her physical and mental health and in the case of rape, incest or fetal impairment. Abortion for economic or social reasons, or on request, is illegal.
According to the US State Department, Israel is a destination country for women subjected to forced labour
and sex trafficking, including forced prostitution. Israeli law complies with international standards and law enforcement has made sustained strong efforts to combat human trafficking, but courts did not always sentence convicts to prison terms commensurate with the gravity of the offense.
 Prevention of Violence in the Family Law 1991  CEDAW (1997), p. 71  CEDAW (1997), p. 83  CEDAW (1997), p. 82-88; CEDAW (2005), pp. 16, 33-34  CEDAW (2005), p. 31  CEDAW (1997), p. 87  U.S. State Department, p. 16  U.S. State Department, p. 16  “The scourge of domestic violence,” Jerusalem Post, April 3, 2013  Penal law section 345  Penal law section 351  U.S. State Department, p. 20  Amnesty International (AI), p. 23.  Section 2a (1988) of Procedural Amendment law (1957)  CEDAW (1997), p. 68  U.S. State Department, p. 16 ; CEDAW (1997), p. 82  U.S. State Department, p. 16  Israel Ministry of Public Security, “Violence Against Women,” November 12, 2012, ttp://mops.gov.il/english/crimeandsocietyeng/pages/targetingwomen.aspx; accessed October 10, 2013.  Amnesty International, p. 27  Prevention of Sexual Harassment Law, 5758-1998, SH No. 166 (Isr.), Equal Opportunities in Employment Law, 5748-1988, SH No. 38 (Isr.)., Penal Law, 5737-1977, 8 LSI 133 (1977) (Isr.).  Mor (2001); Barak-Erez and Kothari (2011), p. 185  Barak-Erez and Kothari, pp. 185-186  U.S. State Department, p. 17  Barak-Erez and Kothari, p. 186  arak-Erez and Kothari, p. 191.  U.S. State Department, p. 17  http://www.1202.org.il/english/  United Nations. ttp://www.un.org/esa/population/publications/abortion/doc/ (accessed 06/05/2014)  U.S. State Department (2013) p. 207