CEDAW (2004), pp. 53-54  CEDAW (2012), p. 62  CEDAW (2004), p.54  CEDAW (2012), p. 62  African Development Bank (2009), p. 8  African Development Bank (2009), p. 38  Constitution, Chapter III, article 22; CEDAW (2012), p. 62  CEDAW (2012), p. 62  United Nations Committee on the Rights of the Child (2007)  CEDAW (2012), p. 62  CEDAW (2012), pp. 61, 62  Constitution of Eritrea, 1997; FAO (n.d.)  Gebremedhin (2002), p. 49
In Eritrea, violence against women is defined as a crime under the Transitional Penal Code, including rape, which is included in the Penal Code. However, the government acknowledges in its latest report to the United Nations Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW) that “no specific evidentiary and procedural provisions of the procedure code and other codes [which] deal with the cases of violence against women.”The US Department of State describes violence against women and girls as “pervasive” in Eritrea, although underreported.
The Land Reform Proclamation (58/1994) gives every citizen the right to use land.The Eritrean People’s Liberation Front established a policy on land redistribution to improve women’s access to land by granting extensive land rights to divorced, widowed and childless women. However, land has been inequitably distributed by the government, in some cases widely so. The government’s latest report to CEDAW states that, between 1995 and 2005, the Department of Land distributed land to 25,618 women (compared to 41,326 men) for housing, to 326 women (compared to 2,095 men) for agriculture, and 1,189 women (compared to 2,677 men) for commercial enterprises.
There are no reported legal limitations to women’s access to public space. In its 2013 letter to the Human Rights Council, Amnesty International reported instances of arbitrary arrest and detention in Eritrea on a vast scale, with at least 10,000 political prisoners detained since its independence. This indicates that, despite technical legislative rights to free movement, women (and men) currently do not enjoy full freedom of mobility in Eritrea.