2014 categories


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Countries having very low levels of gender discrimination in social institutions (SIGI < 0.04)
These countries are characterised by robust legal frameworks and measures that provide equal rights in the family code and in access to resources and assets and that promote women’s civil liberties. In most of these countries, women and men have equal parental and inheritance rights, and early marriage is not a common practice. Women do not face restrictions on their access to public space or their participation in politics. Neither missing women nor female genital mutilation is a concern. However, the countries lack laws to protect women from violence and measures to implement them, and women need better access to justice. On average 20% of women in these countries have been victims of domestic violence in their lifetime.

Countries having low levels of gender discrimination in social institutions (0.04 < SIGI < 0.12)
These countries are characterised by strong laws providing equal rights for women and men in the family code, in access to resources and assets, and in civil liberties. Both sexes enjoy equal opportunities to own and make decisions over land and other resources. Female genital mutilation is not practiced, and most women have reproductive autonomy. These countries have inadequate legal frameworks regarding violence against women. On average 31% of women have been victims of domestic violence in their lifetime, and more than 29% of women agree that domestic violence is justified under certain circumstances.

Countries having medium levels of gender discrimination in social institutions (0.12 < SIGI < 0.22)
These countries are characterised by inconsistent or conflicting legal frameworks covering the family code, women’s access to resources and assets, and civil liberties. The strong influence of customary practices perpetuates discrimination in these areas. Specifically, women face discrimination in terms of the legal age of marriage, parental authority, inheritance, and rights to land and financial services. Women are restricted in their access to public space, as well as in their participation in political life due to the absence of quotas at the national and/or sub-national levels. Legal frameworks addressing violence against women are inadequate (e.g. certain types of violence are not included). On average, 39% of women agree that domestic violence is justified under certain circumstances.

Countries having high levels of gender discrimination in social institutions (0.22 < SIGI < 0.35)
These countries are characterised by discrimination embedded in customary laws, social norms and practices and by inappropriate legal protections against gender discrimination in all dimensions of social institutions. The legal frameworks and/or the customary laws discriminate against women in respect to the legal age of marriage, parental authority and inheritance. Women’s physical integrity is restricted due to inadequate legal frameworks to address violence against women and high levels of acceptance of domestic violence. Moreover, female genital mutilation is a common practice. Most of these countries have medium to very high levels of devaluation of daughters and preference for sons, as shown by the numbers of missing women or the unbalanced sex ratios at last birth. Finally, women’s access to public space and resources is limited. On average 32% of women have been victims of domestic violence in their lifetime, and more than 49% of women agree that domestic violence is justified under certain circumstances.

Countries having very high levels of gender discrimination in social institutions (0.35 > SIGI)
These countries are characterised by very high levels of discrimination in legal frameworks and customary practices across most sub-indices and by very poor implementation measures. The family code greatly discriminates against women: almost one third of girls younger than 19 are married, and women face severe discrimination in their parental authority and inheritance rights. Women’s rights to own and control land and other resources and to access public space are extremely limited. There are serious infringements on their physical integrity matched by high levels of acceptance and prevalence of domestic violence: 44% of women have been victims of domestic violence, and 59% accept that it is justified under certain circumstances.